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SMPP - Short message peer-to-peer protocol

Transmission of short messages between the SMSC and the handset is done using the Mobile Application Part (MAP) of the SS7 protocol.

Messages are sent with the MAP mo- and mt-ForwardSM operations, whose payload length is limited by the constraints of the signaling protocol to precisely 140 octets (140 octets = 140 * 8 bits = 1120 bits). Short messages can be encoded using a variety of alphabets: the default GSM 7-bit alphabet (shown below), the 8-bit data alphabet, and the 16-bit UTF-16/UCS-2 alphabet.

Depending on which alphabet the subscriber has configured in the handset, this leads to the maximum individual Short Message sizes of 160 7-bit characters, 140 8-bit characters, or 70 16-bit characters.

Support of the GSM 7-bit alphabet is mandatory for GSM handsets and network elements,[18] but characters in languages such as Arabic, Chinese, Korean, Japanese or Cyrillic alphabet languages (e.g. Russian) must be encoded using the 16-bit UCS-2 character encoding (see Unicode). Routing data and other meta data is additional to the payload size.
7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 Meaning
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 SMSC Default Alphabet
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 IA5 (CCITT T.50)/ASCII (ANSI X3.4)
0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 Octet unspecified (8-bit binary)
0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 Latin 1 (ISO-8859-1)
0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 Octet unspecified (8-bit binary)
0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 JIS (X 0208-1990)
0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 Cyrllic (ISO-8859-5)
0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 Latin/Hebrew (ISO-8859-8)
0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 UCS2 (ISO/IEC-10646)
0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 Pictogram Encoding
0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 ISO-2022-JP (Music Codes)
0 0 0 0 1 1 0 1 Extended Kanji JIS(X 0212-1990)
0 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 KS C 5601
1 1 0 0 x x x x GSM MWI control - see [GSM 03.38]
1 1 0 1 x x x x GSM MWI control - see [GSM 03.38]
1 1 1 1 x x x x GSM message class control - see [GSM 03.38]








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